R. Carter and K. Mendis, Evolutionary and Historical Aspects of the Burden of Malaria, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.15, issue.4, pp.564-594, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.15.4.564-594.2002

C. Guerra, R. Snow, and S. Hay, Mapping the global extent of malaria in 2005, Trends in Parasitology, vol.22, issue.8, pp.353-358, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pt.2006.06.006

L. Miller, S. Mason, D. Clyde, and M. Mcginniss, in Blacks, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.295, issue.6, pp.302-304, 1976.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM197608052950602

R. Horuk, A. Martin, Z. Wang, L. Schweitzer, and A. Gerassimides, Expression of chemokine receptors by subsets of neurons in the central nervous system, J Immunol, vol.158, pp.2882-2890, 1997.

T. Hadley, Z. Lu, K. Wasniowska, A. Martin, and S. Peiper, Postcapillary venule endothelial cells in kidney express a multispecific chemokine receptor that is structurally and functionally identical to the erythroid isoform, which is the Duffy blood group antigen., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.94, issue.3, pp.985-991, 1994.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI117465

C. Tournamille, Y. Colin, J. Cartron, L. Van-kim, and C. , Disruption of a GATA motif in the Duffy gene promoter abolishes erythroid gene expression in Duffy???negative individuals, Nature Genetics, vol.85, issue.2, pp.224-228, 1995.
DOI : 10.1006/geno.1994.1014

L. Cavalli-sforza, Africa. The History and Geography of Human Genes, pp.158-194, 1994.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00379952

M. Hamblin, D. Rienzo, and A. , Detection of the Signature of Natural Selection in Humans: Evidence from the Duffy Blood Group Locus, The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol.66, issue.5, pp.1669-1679, 2000.
DOI : 10.1086/302879

J. Pease and P. Murphy, Microbial corruption of the chemokine system: An expanding paradigm, Seminars in Immunology, vol.10, issue.3, pp.169-178, 1998.
DOI : 10.1006/smim.1998.0129

O. Cornejo and A. Escalante, The origin and age of Plasmodium vivax, Trends in Parasitology, vol.22, issue.12, pp.558-563, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pt.2006.09.007

R. Carter, Speculations on the origins of Plasmodium vivax malaria, Trends in Parasitology, vol.19, issue.5, pp.214-219, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1471-4922(03)00070-9

J. Mu, D. Joy, J. Duan, Y. Huang, and J. Carlton, Host Switch Leads to Emergence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Humans, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.22, issue.8, pp.1686-1693, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msi160

S. Jongwutiwes, C. Putaporntip, T. Iwasaki, M. Ferreira, and H. Kanbara, Mitochondrial Genome Sequences Support Ancient Population Expansion in Plasmodium vivax, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.22, issue.8, pp.1733-1739, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msi168

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1224720

R. Culleton, M. Ndounga, F. Zeyrek, C. Coban, and P. Casimiro, in the Republic of the Congo, West Central Africa, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.200, issue.9, pp.1465-1469, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/644510

M. Nei, Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, 1987.

N. Sakihama, H. Ohmae, B. Bakote-'e, M. Kawabata, and K. Hirayama, Limited allelic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 gene from populations in the Solomon Islands, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.74, pp.31-40, 2006.

P. Librado and J. Rozas, DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data, Bioinformatics, vol.25, issue.11, pp.1451-1452, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp187

J. Castelloe and A. Templeton, Root Probabilities for Intraspecific Gene Trees under Neutral Coalescent Theory, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.3, issue.2, pp.102-113, 1994.
DOI : 10.1006/mpev.1994.1013

M. Clement, D. Posada, and K. Crandall, TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies, Molecular Ecology, vol.11, issue.10, pp.1657-1659, 2000.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01020.x

D. Joy, X. Feng, J. Mu, T. Furuya, and K. Chotivanich, Early Origin and Recent Expansion of Plasmodium falciparum, Science, vol.300, issue.5617, pp.318-321, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1081449

T. Anderson, B. Haubold, J. Williams, J. Estrada-franco, and L. Richardson, Microsatellite Markers Reveal a Spectrum of Population Structures in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.17, issue.10, pp.1467-1482, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026247

C. Cavasini, L. Mattos, A. Couto, C. Bonini-domingos, and S. Valencia, Plasmodium vivax infection among Duffy antigen-negative individuals from the Brazilian Amazon region: an exception?, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.101, issue.10, pp.1042-1044, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.04.011

URL : http://trstmh.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/101/10/1042

J. Ryan, J. Stoute, J. Amon, R. Dunton, and R. Mtalib, Evidence for transmission of Plasmodium vivax among a duffy antigen negative population in Western Kenya, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.75, pp.575-581, 2006.

D. Menard, C. Barnadas, C. Bouchier, C. Henry-halldin, and L. Gray, Plasmodium vivax clinical malaria is commonly observed in Duffy-negative Malagasy people, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.13, pp.5967-5971, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0912496107

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00741118

R. Culleton, T. Mita, M. Ndounga, H. Unger, and P. Cravo, Failure to detect Plasmodium vivax in West and Central Africa by PCR species typing, Malaria Journal, vol.7, issue.1, p.174, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1475-2875-7-174

S. Krief, A. Escalante, M. Pacheco, L. Mugisha, and C. Andre, On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos, PLoS Pathogens, vol.16, issue.2, p.1000765, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000765.s002

W. Liu, Y. Li, G. Learn, R. Rudicell, and J. Robertson, Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas, Nature, vol.39, issue.7314, pp.420-425, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nature09442