T. Dalton, P. Cegielski, S. Akksilp, L. Asencios, and J. C. Caoili, Prevalence of and risk factors for resistance to secondline drugs in people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in eight countries: a prospective cohort study, Lancet, vol.380, pp.1406-1417, 2012.

S. Huseynova, D. S. Hashim, M. R. Tbena, R. Harris, and A. Bassili, Estimating tuberculosis burden and reporting in resource-limited countries: a capture-recapture study in Iraq, Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis, vol.17, pp.462-467, 2013.

S. Al-hajoj, B. Varghese, F. Al-habobe, M. M. Shoukri, and A. Mulder, Current trends of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology in Saudi Arabia and associated demographical factors, Infect. Genet. Evol, vol.16, pp.362-368, 2013.

M. W. Borgdorff and D. Van-soolingen, The re-emergence of tuberculosis: what have we learnt from molecular epidemiology?, Clin Microbiol. Infect, 2013.

S. Borrell, M. Espanol, A. Orcau, G. Tudo, and F. March, Factors associated with differences between conventional contact tracing and molecular epidemiology in study of tuberculosis transmission and analysis in the city of, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.47, pp.198-204, 2009.

C. Allix, K. Walravens, C. Saegerman, J. Godfroid, and P. Supply, Evaluation of the epidemiological relevance of variablenumber tandem-repeat genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and comparison of the method with IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.44, pp.1951-1962, 2006.

C. Loiez, E. Willery, J. L. Legrand, V. Vincent, and M. C. Gutierrez, Against all odds: molecular confirmation of an implausible case of bone tuberculosis, Clin. Infect. Dis, vol.42, pp.86-88, 2006.

M. A. Merza, P. Farnia, A. M. Salih, M. R. Masjedi, and A. A. Velayati, First insight into the drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Dohuk, Iraq: using spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR to characterize multidrug resistant strains, J. Infect. Public Health, vol.4, pp.41-47, 2011.

O. Kisa, G. Tarhan, S. Gunal, A. Albay, and R. Durmaz, Distribution of spoligotyping defined genotypic lineages among drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates in Ankara, PLoS One, vol.7, p.30331, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00691751

O. Kisa, A. Albay, O. Baylan, E. Tozkoparan, and C. H. Acikel, Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates at the Military Medical Academy in Ankara, Turkey, Res. Microbiol, vol.158, pp.318-323, 2007.

O. Kisa, A. Albay, O. Baylan, A. Balkan, and L. Doganci, Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a retrospective study from a 2000-bed teaching hospital in, vol.22, pp.456-457, 2003.

M. Rohani, P. Farnia, M. N. Nasab, R. Moniri, and M. Torfeh, Beijing genotype and other predominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes observed in Mashhad city, Iran, Indian J. Med. Microbiol, vol.27, pp.306-310, 2009.

S. Z. Bostanabad, M. Shekarabei, S. A. Nojoumi, E. Jabbarzadeh, and M. Ghalami, Study of genetic evolution in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis in the Iran and Belarus, Open Microbiol. J, vol.5, pp.32-42, 2011.

S. Hajoj and N. Rastogi, The emergence of Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ann. Thorac. Med, vol.5, pp.149-152, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00691767

P. Supply, C. Allix, S. Lesjean, M. Cardoso-oelemann, and S. Rusch-gerdes, Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unitvariable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.44, pp.4498-4510, 2006.

N. Alonso-rodriguez, M. Martinez-lirola, M. Herranz, M. Sanchez-benitez, and P. Barroso, Evaluation of the new advanced 15-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping tool in Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology studies, BMC Microbiol, vol.8, p.34, 2008.

C. Demay, B. Liens, T. Burguiè-re, V. Hill, and D. Couvin, SITVITWEB -a publicly available international multimarker database for studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology, Infect. Genet. Evol, vol.12, pp.755-766, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00691750

R. K. Selander, T. K. Korhonen, V. Vaisanen-rhen, P. H. Williams, and P. E. Pattison, Genetic relationships and clonal structure of strains of Escherichia coli causing neonatal septicemia and meningitis, Infect. Immun, vol.52, pp.213-222, 1986.

P. R. Hunter and M. A. Gaston, Numerical index of the discriminatory ability of typing systems: an application of Simpson's index of diversity, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.26, pp.2465-2466, 1988.

D. Affolabi, G. Anyo, F. Faihun, N. Sanoussi, and I. C. Shamputa, First molecular epidemiological study of tuberculosis in Benin, Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis, vol.13, pp.317-322, 2009.

R. K. Selander and B. R. Levin, Genetic diversity and structure in Escherichia coli populations, vol.210, pp.545-547, 1980.

P. M. Small, P. C. Hopewell, S. P. Singh, A. Paz, and J. Parsonnet, The epidemiology of tuberculosis in San Francisco. A population-based study using conventional and molecular methods, N. Engl. J. Med, vol.330, pp.1703-1709, 1994.

A. Ali, Z. Hasan, M. Tanveer, A. R. Siddiqui, and S. Ghebremichael, Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Central Asian Strain 1 using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit genotyping, BMC Microbiol, vol.7, p.76, 2007.

C. Sola, S. Ferdinand, C. Mammina, A. Nastasi, and N. Rastogi, Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sicily based on spoligotyping and variable number of tandem DNA repeats and comparison with a spoligotyping database for populationbased analysis, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.39, pp.1559-1565, 2001.

C. Sola, I. Filliol, E. Legrand, S. Lesjean, and C. Locht, Genotyping of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using MIRUs: association with VNTR and spoligotyping for molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics, Infect. Genet. Evol, vol.3, pp.125-133, 2003.

B. Gencer and T. M. Shinnick, Molecular genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Turkey, Am. J. Infect. Dis, vol.1, pp.5-11, 2005.

S. A. Al-hajoj, T. Zozio, F. Al-rabiah, V. Mohammad, and M. Al-nasser, First insight into the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.45, pp.2467-2473, 2007.

T. Zozio, C. Allix, S. Gunal, Z. Saribas, and A. Alp, Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in two cities of Turkey: description of a new family of genotypes that is phylogeographically specific for Asia Minor, BMC Microbiol, vol.5, p.44, 2005.

C. Sola, I. Filliol, M. C. Gutierrez, I. Mokrousov, and V. Vincent, Spoligotype database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biogeographic distribution of shared types and epidemiologic and phylogenetic perspectives, Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.7, pp.390-396, 2001.

I. Filliol, J. R. Driscoll, D. Van-soolingen, B. N. Kreiswirth, and K. Kremer, Snapshot of moving and expanding clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their global distribution assessed by spoligotyping in an international study, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.41, pp.1963-1970, 2003.

Z. Hasan, M. Tanveer, A. Kanji, Q. Hasan, and S. Ghebremichael, Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Pakistan reveals predominance of Central Asian Strain 1 and Beijing isolates, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.44, pp.1763-1768, 2006.

U. B. Singh, N. Suresh, N. V. Bhanu, J. Arora, and H. Pant, Predominant tuberculosis spoligotypes, Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.10, pp.1138-1142, 2004.

R. M. Warren, E. M. Streicher, S. L. Sampson, G. D. Van-der-spuy, and M. Richardson, Microevolution of the direct repeat region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for interpretation of spoligotyping data, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.40, pp.4457-4465, 2002.

S. Godreuil, G. Torrea, D. Terru, F. Chevenet, and S. Diagbouga, First molecular epidemiology study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Burkina Faso, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.45, pp.921-927, 2007.

T. Weniger, J. Krawczyk, P. Supply, S. Niemann, and D. Harmsen, MIRU-VNTRplus: a web tool for polyphasic genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.38, pp.326-331, 2010.

D. Almeida, C. Rodrigues, T. F. Ashavaid, A. Lalvani, and Z. F. Udwadia, High incidence of the Beijing genotype among multidrug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tertiary care, Clin. Infect. Dis, vol.40, pp.881-886, 2005.

Y. Pang, Y. Zhou, B. Zhao, G. Liu, and G. Jiang, Spoligotyping and drug resistance analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from national survey in China, PLoS One, vol.7, p.32976, 2012.

V. Elisseeff, The Silk Road; Highway of culture and Commerce, UNESCO, 2000.

C. W. Pannell, China Gazes West: Xinjiangs growing Rendezvous with Central Asia, Eur. Geogr. Econ, vol.52, pp.105-118, 2011.

P. Farnia, F. Mohammadi, M. R. Masjedi, A. Varnerot, and A. Z. Zarifi, Evaluation of tuberculosis transmission in Tehran: using RFLP and spoligotyping methods, J. Infect, vol.49, pp.94-101, 2004.

Y. Pang, Y. Song, H. Xia, Y. Zhou, and B. Zhao, Risk factors and clinical phenotypes of Beijing genotype strains in tuberculosis patients in China, BMC Infect. Dis, vol.12, p.354, 2012.

R. Durmaz, T. Zozio, S. Gunal, A. Yaman, and C. Cavusoglu, Genetic diversity and major spoligotype families of drugresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from different regions of Turkey, Infect. Genet. Evol, vol.7, pp.513-519, 2007.

E. Aktas, T. Zozio, F. B. Comert, C. Kulah, and O. Aydin, A first insight into the genetic diversity and population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Zonguldak, Turkey, Clin. Microbiol. Infect, vol.14, pp.55-59, 2008.

R. Durmaz, T. Zozio, S. Gunal, C. Allix, and M. Fauville-dufaux, Population-based molecular epidemiological study of tuberculosis in Malatya, Turkey, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.45, pp.4027-4035, 2007.

H. M. Gomes, A. R. Elias, M. A. Oelemann, M. A. Pereira, and F. F. Montes, Spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from patients residents of 11 states of Brazil, Infect. Genet. Evol, vol.12, pp.649-656, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00691754

F. Akinlade, N. J. Cowans, M. C. Kisanga, and K. Spencer, Maternal serum CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 levels in pregnancies affected by trisomy 21, Prenat. Diagn, vol.32, pp.644-648, 2012.

L. V. Adams, B. N. Kreiswirth, R. D. Arbeit, H. Soini, and L. Mtei, Molecular epidemiology of HIV-associated tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: strain predominance, clustering, and polyclonal disease, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.50, pp.2645-2650, 2012.

D. Alland, G. E. Kalkut, A. R. Moss, R. A. Mcadam, and J. A. Hahn, Transmission of tuberculosis in New York City. An analysis by DNA fingerprinting and conventional epidemiologic methods, N. Engl. J. Med, vol.330, pp.1710-1716, 1994.

J. F. Reyes, A. R. Francis, and M. M. Tanaka, Models of deletion for visualizing bacterial variation: an application to tuberculosis spoligotypes, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.9, p.496, 2008.

M. M. Tanaka and A. R. Francis, Detecting emerging strains of tuberculosis by using spoligotypes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.103, pp.15266-15271, 2006.

P. Supply, E. Mazars, S. Lesjean, V. Vincent, and B. Gicquel, Variable human minisatellite-like regions in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, Mol. Microbiol, vol.36, pp.762-771, 2000.

E. Savine, R. M. Warren, G. D. Van-der-spuy, N. Beyers, and P. D. Van-helden, Stability of variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units from 12 loci in serial isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.40, pp.4561-4566, 2002.

H. Van-deutekom, P. Supply, P. E. De-haas, E. Willery, and S. P. Hoijng, Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variablenumber tandem repeat analysis, a more accurate method for identifying epidemiological links between patients with tuberculosis, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.43, pp.4473-4479, 2005.

R. Stavrum, M. Mphahlele, K. Ovreas, T. Muthivhi, and P. B. Fourie, High diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in South Africa and preponderance of mixed infections among ST53 isolates, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.47, pp.1848-1856, 2009.

R. Stavrum, V. P. Myneedu, V. K. Arora, N. Ahmed, and H. M. Grewal, In-depth molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from New Delhi-predominance of drug resistant isolates of the 'modern' (TbD1) type, PLoS One, vol.4, p.4540, 2009.

. Afri-e-27, ASIA-W 21, ASIA-S, vol.71, issue.5

A. 61, ASIA-S 14, vol.43

A. 53, ASIA-W 6.91, EURO-W 6, vol.15

A. 39, EURO-E 23, ASIA-S, vol.52, p.99

. Amer-n-18, AMER-S 17, vol.83

A. 16, AFRI-N 15, vol.3

A. 26, ASIA-S 17, vol.47

A. 44, AFRI-E 35, vol.12

A. 47, EURO-E 21, vol.26

. Euro-w-21, EURO-S 14, vol.57

. Amer-n-16, EURO-W 16, ASIA-W 7.13, EURO-N 5, vol.94

A. 55, EURO-W 17.02, ASIA-W 9, vol.85